Leeks: Giant Musselburg (Heirloom) (Allium porrum)
Soil Preparation & Start Indoors
Harvesting & Storage
Culinary & Medicinal
Nutrition & Health Benefits
Also Known As: Giant Musselburgh or Scotch Flag.
Ease of Growing: Easy
Grown as: Biennial
Days to Maturity: Spring/Summer 90 days, Fall/Winter 95-105 days
Hardiness: Hardy. Leeks can be extremely frost tolerant and are considered to be one of the hardiest winter crops.
Crops: Fall Transplant
Growing Season: Long
Growing Conditions: Cold, Cool, Warm. In areas with hot summers and mild winters, leeks do best as an overwintering crop. This should be started in early summer (indoors or out).
Outdoor Growing Temp: 45°F - 85°F
Min Outdoor Soil Temp: 50°F. Leek seed germinates fairly well in cold soil.
Start Indoors: Yes
Start Outdoors: No
Light: Sun: min. 6 hours daily (Cold, Cool, Warm). Leeks do best in full sun, though they will tolerate some shade.
Water: Moderate. Leeks grow best in moist soil. Give the plants constant moisture and apply a mulch.
Feeder: Moderate. Moderate nitrogen. Moderate potassium. Moderate phosphorous. Leeks aren't a very hungry plant.
Suitability: Tolerates light frost, Tolerates hard frost.
Small Gardens?: Yes
Containers?: Yes. You can grow leeks in a container. Make sure that your container is 12" deep and has drainage holes. Fill with a mixture of potting soil and compost to a level about 4" below the top of the container, which will give you room to blanch the leeks later by adding layers of compost or soil. In hot weather you should keep them out of direct sun.
Attracts beneficial insects?: No
Plant Height: 12-18"
Plant Spacing: 3-6"
Sow Depth: 0.25" to 0.5"
Hardiness Zone: 2-11
Produces: white leeks 9-15" long with a diameter of 2-3".
Taste Profile: Hardy, wonderful flavor, ideal for soups and stews.
Soil pH: 6.0-7.0, Ideal 6.4-6.6. Leeks need a deep, rich, fairly neutral soil. It should be well drained, because the plants will remain in the ground through much of the winter and are susceptible to rot in wet soil. They do particularly well in deep intensive beds. Leeks can be planted fairly early in the spring, so gardeners often prepare the growing bed the previous fall.
Compost (N), 2 inch(es), in top 6" of soil, 1 time: Incorporate 2˝ of compost or aged manure into the top 6˝. If the soil is compacted, you might want to consider double digging, because Leeks like loose loam.
Standard Mix, 5 pound(s) per 100 sq. ft., in top 6" of soil, 1 time: Incorporate a standard mix into the top 6" of soil along with the compost. It will supply any additional nutrients required. This is a mix of various amendments intended to supply all of the nutrients plants may require. It is usually incorporated into the soil prior to planting.
The mix consists of:
- 4 parts cottonseed meal (this is high in nitrogen and relatively inexpensive)
- 2 parts colloidal phosphate or bone meal (for phosphorus)
- 2 parts wood ash or 3 parts greensand or granite dust (for potassium)
- 1 part dolomitic limestone (to balance pH and add calcium and magnesium)
- 1 part kelp meal (for trace elements)
Mix these together thoroughly. You can do this all at once, or you can store them separately and mix as needed.
Soil temp for germination: 40°F to 95°F, optimal 60°F to 75°F, optimal 68°F
Total weeks to grow transplant: 12 (Spring/Summer), 13 to 14 (Fall/Winter)
Germinate: 16-20 weeks before first frost date.
Winter: In areas with mild winter, Leeks are best grown as an over-wintering crop. They are started in early summer.
Leeks transplant easily so are usually started in flats. They don’t have much foliage so can be planted quite close together and you can get a lot of plants in one flat. The seeds germinate and grow slowly, so start them early, water regularly, feed occasionally and be patient.
1. Sow seeds about 1" apart and 1/8" deep in the flat.
Dibber: The simplest way to plant Leek seedlings is with a dibber. In fact a desire to plant a lot of Leeks is a sufficient reason to get (or make) a dibber.
1. Mark out the required 4˝ to 6˝ hole depth (depending on size of plants) on the side of the dibber, so you know how deep to go.
2. Then, simply punch a series of holes in the soil, and drop a plant into each hole
3. Water the plants by putting a trickle of water in each hole. There is no need to fill the hole with soil, enough soil will wash down into the bottom of the hole to cover the roots. It couldn’t be easier, or quicker.
Trench: You can also transplant the seedlings into a 6˝ to 8˝ deep trench, but it’s a lot more work. Dig the trench, lay the plants in it at the right spacing and then plant them almost up to the growing point. The trench is re-filled slowly to blanch the stems and provide a greater length of the most desirable white stem. If you fill the trench all at once, there is some danger that the stem may rot.
Rows: Leeks can also be planted in a row on level ground. They are then hilled up as they grow, to blanch the lower stems.
Cold, Cool, Warm: In areas with hot summers and mild winters, leeks do best as an overwintering crop. This should be started in early summer (indoors or out).
When outdoor temp: 45°F to 85°F, optimal temp 55°F to 75°F
When min soil temp: 50°F. Leek seed germinates fairly well in cold soil.
Spacing: 3.0"-6.0", 4 plants per sq ft. The spacing for leeks ranges from 3-6" depending upon the fertility of the soil. They are usually planted in offset rows across the bed, so it's possible to hoe between the beds for weeding. To get the highest yield of large plants, space them 6" apart (for giant plants space them 9" apart). You could initially plant leeks closer together and thin as they get bigger. You can eat the thinnings or transplant them.
Water Needs: Moderate. Leeks grow best in moist soil. Give the plants constant moisture and apply a mulch.
Fertilizer Needs: Moderate. Moderate nitrogen. Moderate potassium. Moderate phosphorous. Leeks aren't a very hungry plant.
Watering, regularly: Water, 0.5 inch(es), regularly, 2 times a week Keep the soil moist with regular watering. Watering also depends on your local weather; don't water if it's raining, or water more frequently if it's dry. Just be sure to keep soil moist for the best crop. The best way to know how much moisture is in your soil is to feel 2" below the soil line. If it's dry, water.
Weeding, regularly: regularly, every 3 weeks. The lack of foliage makes young leeks very vulnerable to competition from weeds. It is very important to keep them well weeded, so they don’t get overwhelmed. Leeks are quite shallow rooted, so be careful if weeding with a hoe (it’s safer to hand weed).
Protecting, while danger of frost: Mulch, 4 inch(es), while danger of frost, 1 time. Mulch is essential in areas where winter temperatures drop below 10˚ Fahrenheit. It not only protects the plants from cold, but also stabilizes the soil temperature. This prevents frost heaving, which can damage the roots. It’s best to apply a mulch while the soil is still warm, to hold in the heat.
Side Dressing, when 3" tall: Compost tea, 3 gallon(s) per 100 sq. ft., when 3in tall, 1 time. Leeks are often in the soil when it’s cold and many nutrients aren’t easily available. Give them a feed of diluted compost tea or liquid kelp (use as directed) as soon as they are well established.
Side Dressing, when 12" tall: Compost tea, 5 gallon(s) per 100 sq. ft., when 12in tall, every 4 weeks. Feed them with compost tea again when they are about a foot tall and then every 4 weeks after that.
You could also use liquid kelp or fish emulsion instead (apply as directed).
Thinning, during fruit production: during fruit production, 1 time a week During the growing season thin Leeks to the variety requirements. You may continually thin which will allow you to eat tender young Leeks. Thinning Leeks, before they reach full size, is a process that can be utilized until the crop reaches full maturity. Harvest by thinning alternate plants, as this gives the remaining plants more room to grow. Just be sure you don’t disturb their roots. Alternatively you could take the largest plants first, leaving the others to size up.
Side Dressing, before harvest: Soil, 4 inch(es), before harvest, 1 time. Blanching: Leeks are often blanched to get a longer area of white stem, as this is considered superior to the green part. Blanching is usually done with soil, either by hilling up the stems (to just below where the leaves start), or filling up the trench they are growing in. Some gardeners wrap corrugated cardboard collars around the plants before blanching to prevent soil getting lodged between the leaves (no one likes gritty Leeks).
You can also blanch the stems with a deep mulch (4"), which has the advantage of not being gritty.
Side Dressing, to conserve moisture: Mulch, 2 inch(es), to conserve moisture, 1 time. Leeks don’t cast much shade, so they are vulnerable to weeds and the soil is prone to drying out in sunny weather. A layer of mulch helps the soil retain moisture, keeps down weeds and is a source of nutrients for the soil.
Leeks can be harvested as soon as they reach sufficient size (about 3/4" diameter), their flavor and texture is almost always good (even when they get big).
Storage Req: Ground
Storage Temp: °F
Storage Length: days
You can store leeks for several weeks in a plastic bag in the fridge.
Storage Req: Refrigerator
Storage Temp: 35-40°F
Storage Length: 1-21 days
In very cold climates you can store Leeks in a root cellar at 32 to 40˚ F. Trim off the excess tops and roots and plant them in a box of damp sand.
Storage Req: Cold, Moist
Storage Temp: 32-40°F
Storage Length: 1-60 days
Leeks are cross-pollinated by insects, so should be isolated by one mile from any other varieties (fortunately there are not likely to be any others nearby). These will produce seed in early summer.
If you need the space for another crop, you can dig the seed leeks from their bed in early spring and move them to a convenient location.
Seed Viability in Years: 2-4 Years
Germination Percentage: 75%
Hardy, wonderful flavor, ideal for soups and stews.
Leeks can be used in place of onions, they are of the same family. Make sure they are thoroughly washed and all dirt is removed from between the layers. Leeks are especially good when braised with other vegetables, fish and meats. When they are young they can be grilled or steamed to make a terrine. Leek and potato soup is commonly featured on menus in the winter.
The leaves and long white blanched stem are eaten cooked. They can also be cut into thin slices and be added to salads. A mild onion flavor with a delightful sweetness.
Bulb: raw or cooked. The bulb is produced in the plants second year of growth (that is, after it is normally harvested). The bulb is somewhat larger if the plant is prevented from flowering.
Flowers: raw. Used as a garnish on salads, though they are rather on the dry side and less pleasant than many other members of the genus.
Companions: Compact, light feeding leeks are easy to integrate anywhere in the garden.
Enemies: Companion gardeners believe that leeks inhibit the growth of peas and other legumes. Some believe sage and leeks do not thrive as neighbors.
To attract Earwigs to your garden you will need to grow: Celery (Apium graveolens), Beets (Beta vulgaris, Cabbages, Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea/Brassica rapa), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Dahlia, Carrot (Daucus carota), Carnation (Dianthus), Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), Hop (Humulus lupulus), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), Apple (Malus domestica), Apricot (Prunus armeniaca), Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium), Plum (Prunus domestica), Peach (Prunus persica), European Pear (Pyrus communis), Rhubarb (Rheum hybridum), Roses (Rosa), Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Potato (Solanum tuberosum), Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), Corn (Zea mays), Zinnia.
Ground Beetles: Prey on Snails, Slugs, Ants, Maggots, Earthworms, Caterpillars, Armyworms, Grubs, Colorado Potato Beetles, and Cutworms.
To attract Ground Beetles to your garden you will need to grow: Evening Primrose, Amaranthus, and Clover.
To attract Ground Beetles to your garden you will need to grow: evening primrose, amaranthus, and clover.
Parasitic Wasps: There are several species of parasitoid wasps that parasitize aphids specifically. Parasitic wasps that specialize on aphids are very small (~1/8 inch long) and female wasps have a modified stinger for depositing eggs. The egg is injected into an aphid where the larva develops inside. Parasitized aphids are a light tan to gold color and have a bulbous look. A circular cut out on the rearend of the aphid indicates adult wasp emergence. Parasitic wasps are commercially available but there are abundant populations in the environment.
To attract Big-eyed Bugs to your garden you will need to grow: Caraway (Carum carvi), Cosmos “white sensation” (Cosmos bipinnatus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Spearmint (Mentha spicata), Peter Pan Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), and Marigold “lemon gem” (Tagetes tenuifolia).
Hoverflies: Preys on Aphids, Scale insects, Caterpillars, and Thrips.
To attract Hoverflies to your garden you will need to grow: Fern-leaf yarrow (Achillea ﬁlipendulina), Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Carpet bugleweed (Ajuga reptans), Lavender globe lily (Allium tanguticum), Basket of Gold (Alyssum saxatilis), Dill (Anethum graveolens), Golden Marguerite (Anthemis tinctoria), Dwarf alpine aster (Aster alpinus), Masterwort (Astrantia major), Four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Purple poppy mallow (Callirhoe involucrata), Caraway (Carum carvi), Feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Cosmos white sensation (Cosmos bipinnatus), Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota), Buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum CA), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), Poached egg plant (Limnanthes douglasii), Statice (Limonium latifolium), Butter and eggs (Linaria vulgaris), Edging lobelia (Lobelia erinus), Sweet alyssum white (Lobularia maritima), Lemon Balm (Melissa ofﬁcinalis), Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), Spearmint (Mentha spicata), Wild Bergamot (Monarda ﬁstulosa), Rocky Mountain penstemon (Penstemon strictus), Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), Sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta ‘warrenii’), Alpine cinquefoil (Potentilla villosa), Gloriosa daisy (Rudbeckia fulgida), Orange stonecrop (Sedum kamtschaticum), Stonecrops (Sedum spurium), Peter Pan goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), Wood betony (Stachys ofﬁcinalis), Marigold “lemon gem” (Tagetes tenuifolia), Crimson thyme (Thymus serpylum coccineus), Spike speedwell (Veronica spicata), Zinnia "liliput" (Zinnia elegans).
Minute Pirate Bugs: Prey on Spider Mites, Cabbage Looper, Insect Eggs, Caterpillars, Aphids, and Thrips.
To attract Minute Pirate Bugs to your garden you will need to grow: Plants that attract Minute Pirate Bugs are: Caraway (Carum carvi), Cosmos “white sensation” (Cosmos bipinnatus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Spearmint (Mentha spicata), Peter Pan Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), and Marigold “lemon gem” (Tagetes tenuifolia).
The Health Benefits of Leeks
- Leeks contain many noteworthy flavonoid anti-oxidants, minerals, and vitamins that have proven health benefits.
- Leeks are moderately low in calories. 100 g fresh stalks carry 61 calories. Further, their elongated stalks provide good amounts of soluble and insoluble fiber.
- Though leeks contain proportionately less thio-sulfinites than that in garlic, they still possess significant amounts of these anti-oxidants such as diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide and allyl propyl disulfide. The compounds convert to allicin by enzymatic reaction when the leek-stalk was subjected to crushing, cutting, etc. The total measured anti-oxidant strength (ORAC value) of 100 g leek is 490 TE (Trolex Equivalents).
- Laboratory studies show that allicin reduces cholesterol formation by inhibiting the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme in the liver cells. Further, it also found to have anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities.
- Additionally, allicin reduces blood vessel stiffness by facilitating nitric oxide (NO) release in the vessel wall, and, thereby bring a reduction in the total blood pressure. It also blocks platelet clot formation and has fibrinolytic action (clot-breaking) in the blood vessels. Thus, allicin helps decrease an overall risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular diseases (PVD), and stroke.
- Leeks are a great source of vitamins that are essential for optimum health. Their leafy stems indeed contain several vital vitamins such as pyridoxine, folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin in healthy proportions. 100 g fresh stalks provide 64 µg of folates. Folic acid is essential for DNA synthesis and cell division. Their adequate levels in the diet during pregnancy can help prevent neural tube defects in the newborn babies.
- Additionally, leeks are one of the good sources of vitamin-A (1667 IU or 55% of RDA per 100 g) and other flavonoid phenolic anti-oxidants such as carotenes, xanthin, and lutein. They also have some other essential vitamins such as vitamin C, K, and vitamin E. Vitamin C helps the human body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals.
- Further, its stalks hold small amounts of minerals such as potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and selenium.
Amaranth: Love Lies Bleeding (Heirloom) (Amaranthus caudatus)
Amaranth: Perfecta (Heirloom) (Amaranthus Tricolor 'Perfecta')
Amaranth: Red Garnet (Heirloom) (Amaranthus tricolor)
Balm: Lemon (Melissa officinalis)
Beets: Cylindra (Heirloom) (Beta vulgaris)
Beets: Detroit Dark Red (Heirloom) (Beta vulgaris)
Beets: Golden Detroit (Heirloom) (Beta vulgaris)
Beets seem to have originated in the Mediterranean region, where people grew them for thousands of years. Later, beets grew in Germany and Holland and were used as cattle fodder; they were later imported to England for this purpose, but the poor began to raise them for an affordable food source. American colonists later brought them to the New World, where they became a commonly enjoyed food both for their roots and their greens. According to historians, George Washington experimented with beets, cross-pollinating them to create new varieties.
Bergamot: Wild (Monarda fistulosa)
Cabbage: Early Jersey Wakefield (Heirloom) (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cabbage: Late Flat Dutch (Heirloom) (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cabbage: Red Acre (Heirloom) (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cabbage is considered one of the oldest cultivated vegetables, since historians trace it back to 4,000 BC in China. The Romans also cultivated it and praised it for its healing qualities; philosophers Pythagoras and Cato both made the lowly cabbage the subject of a book. Jacques Cartier brought the first cabbage to America in 1536. Cabbages were quite popular in colonial America, being pickled and preserved in every possible way to provide food for the winter.
Cabbage, Chinese: Pak Choi (Heirloom) (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)
Caraway (Carum carvi)
Carrots: Chantenay Red Cored (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Cosmic Purple (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Danvers (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Rainbow Blend (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Scarlet Nantes (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Tendersweet (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Cauliflower: Snowball Y Improved (Heirloom) (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Celery: Tendercrisp (Heirloom) (Apium graveolens var. dulce)
Celery: Utah Tall 52/70 (Heirloom) (Apium graveolens var. dulce)
Clover: Crimson (Trifolium incarnatum)
Coriander: Leisure (Coriandrum sativum)
Corn: Country Gentleman-Open Pollinated (Heirloom) (Zea mays)
Corn: Golden Bantam-Open Pollinated (Heirloom) (Zea mays)
Corn, Popcorn: Shaman's Blue (Hybrid) Open Pollinated (Zea mays)
Blue corn originated in the Andes Mountains of Peru, where the native peoples usually ground it into flour for cooking. Indians of Mexico and the southwestern United States also widely used this corn, since its dryness made it an excellent flour corn and gave it good resistance to disease. This exciting blue popcorn receives high marks for both visual and taste appeal. The unique blue/purple kernel pops into mounds of snow white popcorn that will satisfy any popcorn lover with its slightly sweet flavor.
Corn, Popcorn: South American Yellow (Zea mays)
According to evidence found by archaeologists on the northern coast of Peru, popcorn was a staple in the ancient civilizations of South America. Popcorn also grew above the border, and it once occupied a space in nearly every American garden. At the beginning of the twentieth century, 52 varieties of popcorn were offered by the seed catalogs of the time. A wise choice for popcorn lovers! This prolific variety bears 2-3, 6-9 inch ears per plant. When popped, the large yellow kernels produce a buttery tasting popcorn.
Corn, Popcorn: Strawberry Red (Zea Mays)
Although it's exact origin is unknown, it is believed that Strawberry Red Popcorn was domesticated by the Olmec and the Mayans. Not only is this amazing variety edible, but it is just as decorative. Each plant grows to 5-6' and bares two or so 2-3" strawberry shaped ears that are covered with brilliant burgundy kernels! Your mind will be blown as you watch the red kernels pop into white popcorn with in the blink of eye!
Cosmos: Bright Lights (Cosmos sulphureus)
Cosmos: Candy Stripe (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Cosmos: Radiance (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Cucumber: Lemon (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: Marketmore 76' (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: Mexican Sour Gherkin (Heirloom) (Melothria scabra)
Cucumber: National Pickling (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: Straight Eight (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: Sumter (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: White Wonder (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
This high yielding ivory white cucumber variety was introduced into the U.S. and first offered by Burpee Seed Company in 1893. White Wonder Cucumbers are delicious raw, in salads, or pickled.
Cucumber: Wisconsin SMR 58 (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Dill: Dukat (Anethum graveolens)
Fennel: Florence (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum)
Lettuce: Bibb (Heirloom) (Lactuca sativa)
Lettuce: Freckles Romaine (Heirloom) (Lactuca sativa)
Lettuce: Oakleaf (Heirloom) (Lactuca sativa)
Lettuce: Red Romaine (Heirloom) (Lactuca sativa)
Mint: Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium)
Mint: Spear (Mentha spicata)
Onions: Evergreen White Bunching (Heirlooms) (Allium fistulosum)
Onions: Ruby Red (Heirloom) (Allium cepa)
Onions: Sweet Spanish White (Heirloom) (Allium cepa)
Onion: Sweet Spanish Yellow (Heirloom) (Allium cepa)
Parsley: Italian Giant (Heirloom) (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum)
Penstemon: Rocky Mountain (Penstemon strictus)
Poached Egg Plant (Limnanthes douglasii)
This native species was first discovered by David Douglas, a Scottish botanist commissioned to collect native American plants suitable for the gardens of Great Britain. The species name "douglasii" honors his discovery, while the genus name "Limnanthes" means "marsh flower" because of this plant's preference for moist soil. This fragrant butterfly magnet has been awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's prestigious Award of Garden Merit.
Tomato: Amana Orange (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Arkansas Traveler (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Beefsteak (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Black Krim (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Green Zebra (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Hillbilly (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Italian Roma (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Purple Cherokee (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Sweetie Cherry (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Yellow Pear (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Zinnia: Benary's Giant Carmine Rose (Zinnia elegans)
Zinnia: Canary Bird (Zinnia elegans)
Zinnia: Cherry Queen (Zinnia elegans)
Zinnia: Exquisite (Zinnia elegans)
A unique and colorful Zinnia that offers a range of shades. Exquisite Zinnia is an easy to grow annual that blooms bright red and fades to soft rose pink as the blooms age. Definitely a favorite of gardeners, florists, or anyone who loves cut flowers.
Zinnia: Luminosa (Zinnia elegans)
Zinnia: Oklahoma Salmon (Zinnia elegans)