Artichoke: Green Globe (Heirloom) (Cynara scolymus)
Soil Preparation & Start Indoors
Harvesting & Storage
Culinary & Medicinal
Nutrition & Health Benefits
Also Known As: French artichoke and green artichoke.
Native Range: Chile, Ecuador, United States
Ease of Growing: Moderate
Grown as: Perennial: Zones 7-11
Annual: Zones 3-6
Days to Maturity: 85 days
Hardiness: Hardy. They are quite frost tender. In cool weather they are grown as an annual and in warm weather they are grown as perennial.
Crops: Spring Transplant
Growing Season: Long
Growing Conditions: Cool, Warm. They grow best in the mild, damp, maritime climate of coastal California. The plants won't survive in cold winters, so in northern areas they must either be grown as annuals or protected over the winter. They need full sun.
Outdoor Growing Temp: 45°F - 85°F
Min Outdoor Soil Temp: 55°F. Don’t plant out until all frost danger is past and the soil has warmed up to at least 55˚ F.
Start Indoors: Yes
Start Outdoors: No
Light: Full Sun. Min. 6 hours daily (Cool, Warm). Artichokes are native to the Mediterranean and need full sun for best growth.
Water: Medium. Though relatively drought tolerant, Artichokes yield better if the soil is kept evenly moist. Water is especially crucial when the buds are developing.
Soil Moisture: Moist. Well drained.
Feeder: Light. Artichokes are most productive when grown without any check in their growth, which means they must get all the nutrients they need. They are usually fed annually with a mulch of compost or aged manure. You can also use an occasional foliar feed of compost tea or liquid kelp.
Suitability: Needs lots of space.
Small Gardens?: No
Containers?: Yes, but will need a large one, like a half wine barrel. Artichokes can be grown in containers, but it's tricky and requires a lot of work. It's important to choose a pot with the right dimensions. Your container needs to be at least 20" deep and 36 to 40" in diameter. Choose a pot that has several drain holes on the bottom, as Artichokes are very susceptible to being waterlogged. Line the bottom with large stones/gravel or netting to prevent soil erosion and fill with a light and loamy, moisture-retaining soil. Incorporate fertilizer such as compost or manure a few days before you plant your artichokes. Artichokes require lots of water and nutrients. Water well 3 to 4 times a day, and fertilize regularly with compost tea every 1 or 2 weeks. It can also be helpful to use a high-nitrogen fertilizer for the first 3 to 4 weeks. Make sure your artichokes receive plenty of sunshine.
Attracts beneficial insects?: Yes. If you let the plant flower, bees and butterflies will be attracted to it.
Sow Depth: 1/2"
Hardiness Zone: 3-11
Produces: 3-5" green artichokes.
Garden Uses: Globe artichokes may be grown as vegetables. Buds are harvested prior to flowering. For consumption, the bud is first steamed until the bracts are easily removable. Bracts are then removed one at a time with the fleshy edible base on each bract being eaten. Inedible choke is removed, leaving the heart. Regardless of culinary value, this plant provides excellent interest to gardens for ornamental foliage and flowers.
Soil pH: 5.5-7.0, Ideal 6.0-6.5. To produce the highest quality Artichoke hearts you need a deep, rich, well-drained, sandy soil. Drainage is particularly important in cold climates because if the roots stay wet for long periods in winter they will often rot.
Compost (Nitrogen), 1 gallon per plant, in top 10" of soil, 1 time: The plants need the typical good vegetable garden soil: fertile, well drained and moisture retentive. Dig the planting hole and replace half the soil with compost.
Standard Mix, 2 cup(s) per plant, in top 10" of soil, 1 time: The plants need the typical good vegetable garden soil: fertile, well drained and moisture retentive. Incorporate 2 cups standard mix into the planting hole, along with the compost. This is a mix of various amendments intended to supply all of the nutrients plants may require. It is usually incorporated into the soil prior to planting. The mix consists of:
- 4 parts cottonseed meal (this is high in nitrogen and relatively inexpensive)
- 2 parts colloidal phosphate or bone meal (for phosphorus)
- 2 parts wood ash or 3 parts greensand or granite dust (for potassium)
- 1 part dolomitic limestone (to balance pH and add calcium and magnesium)
- 1 part kelp meal (for trace elements)
Mix these together thoroughly. You can do this all at once, or you can store them separately and mix as needed.
Soil temp for germination: 50°F to 85°F, optimal 65°F to 70°F, optimal 70°F
Total weeks to grow transplant: 12 to 21 (Spring/Summer), (Fall/Winter)
6 weeks before last frost date: Start the seed indoors 6 weeks before the last frost date, using individual 4" pots. The seedlings grow quickly, so be prepared to move them up to larger pots when necessary, or start with larger pots to begin with.
Keep seedlings in a sunny spot, giving them a light feeding of fertilizer every 2 weeks. Make sure plants get 10 hours of light a day, using additional artificial light if necessary. Keep well watered.
Transplant Suckers: Artichokes are commonly grown from the suckers (offsets) that emerge from all around the old root in spring. These are much better than growing from seed, as the plants yield earlier, are more uniform and much more productive. Rooted suckers are sometimes available in garden centers in spring, or you might be able to beg, steal or borrow some.
Suckers are taken from the parent plant when they are about 10˝ tall. The normal practice is to dig down the side of the plant and cut off the sucker with a heel of old plant root attached. Trim off most of the leaves (there isn't enough root to support them) and plant immediately in a well-prepared site. Alternatively you could plant it in a 1 gallon pot, or in a nursery bed, until well rooted (and then plant it out). Water well after planting.
Transplanting Crowns: If growing from crowns, plant in winter (warmer climates) or in spring (cold areas). Plant crowns 6 to 8" deep and 6' apart in well-drained soil, rich in organic matter. Protect with shade in hot areas (soil temperatures above 85° F will prevent bud-setting). After growth starts, water thoroughly once a week, wetting entire root system.
Cool, Warm: They grow best in the mild, damp, maritime climate of coastal California. The plants won't survive in cold winters, so in northern areas they must either be grown as annuals or protected over the winter. They need full sun.
When outdoor temp: 45°F to 85°F, optimal temp 55°F to 75°F.
When min soil temp: 55°F. Don’t plant out until all frost danger is past and the soil has warmed up to at least 55˚ F.
Spacing: 24"-36", (1 per 2'x2') plants per sq ft. Artichokes are too big to plant in intensive beds. If you want to grow them in rows space them 24 to 36˝ apart and make the rows 48 to 60˝ apart.
Support: Yes. Artichokes can get tall and top heavy and may be blown over by strong winds. You can prevent this by staking them firmly if you're in a windy place. Staking is not necessary, only if this is a problem.
Water Needs: Moderate. Though relatively drought tolerant, Artichokes yield better if the soil is kept evenly moist. Water is especially crucial when the buds are developing.
Fertilizer Needs: Light. Artichokes are most productive when grown without any check in their growth, which means they must get all the nutrients they need. They are usually fed annually with a mulch of compost or aged manure. You can also use an occasional foliar feed of compost tea or liquid kelp.
Watering, regularly: Water, 0.5 inch(es), regularly, 2 times a week. Though relatively drought tolerant, Artichokes yield better if the soil is kept evenly moist. Water is especially crucial when the buds are developing. Watering also depends on your local weather; don't water if it's raining, or water more frequently if it's dry. Just be sure to keep soil moist for the best crop. The best way to know how much moisture is in your soil is to feel 2" below the soil line. If it's dry, water.
Side Dressing, after sowing: Compost tea, 4 cup(s) per plant, after sowing, every 2 months
It doesn't hurt to give the plants a feed of compost tea every couple of months during the growing season.
Protecting, when 18" tall: when 18" tall, 1 time. These tall plants are vulnerable to blowing over in strong winds. If you live in a windy area, make sure they are protected by a windbreak.
Support: Yes. Artichokes can get tall and top heavy and may be blown over by strong winds. You can prevent this by staking them firmly if you're in a windy place. Staking is not necessary, only if this is a problem.
Harvest when the heads are still closed and the stem below the bud is still supple. Check the size, which should be close to 2" or 5" in diameter.
When and How:
Whole Fruit, 1-84 days after maturity:
The terminal bud should be harvested as soon as it reaches full size (2" to 5" in diameter). Any smaller than this and it isn’t really worth bothering with, except perhaps in soup. The bracts should still be tight against the bud; if they have started to open it is too late.
If you miss the right harvest time, you should still cut the head off, as this stimulates the plant to produce more useful secondary buds. After the top flower buds are removed, more will be produced on side shoots. In this way a single plant can produce quite a few buds over the course of the summer.
You need to remove all of the flower buds as they are produced, even if they are not usable. If you leave any on the plant, it will waste energy making seeds. This may even cause the plant to die.
Storage Req: Canning
Storage Temp: 60-70°F
Storage Length: 1-180 days
The hearts will keep for a week or so in the vegetable drawer in the fridge. Don't rinse or cut before storing. As with any vegetable they are best eaten as fresh as possible.
Storage Req: Refrigerator
Storage Temp: 35-40°F
Storage Length: 5-10 days
Seed Viability in Years: 6 - 10 years
Germination Percentage: 60%
Buttery rich flavor.
Artichokes can be used in a variety of ways, cleaning is the most critical step. For large artichokes, cut off the stem and the top of the head and then trim back lower leaves. They are traditionally steamed. Then they can be grilled, stuffed, or eaten as individual leaves usually complimented by a dipping sauce. The gem of the artichoke is the heart, which can be eaten steamed or used in soups, salads and sauces. The small artichokes are more versatile and can be chopped, fried, sauteed or used in dips and as appetizer. Always use a water bath with lemon to keep the artichoke from turning brown during preparation.
Flower buds: raw or cooked. Used before the flowers open. The flavor is mild and pleasant. Globe artichokes are considered to be a gourmet food but they are very fiddly to eat. The buds are harvested just before the flowers open, they are then usually boiled before being eaten. Only the base of each bract is eaten, plus the "heart" or base that the petals grow from . Small, or baby artichokes, that are produced on lateral stems can be pickled or used in soups and stews. Plants yield about 5 to 6 main heads per year from their second year onward.
Flowering stems: peeled and eaten raw or cooked. A sweet nutty flavor.
Young leaf stems: a celery substitute. They are normally blanched to remove the bitterness and then boiled or eaten raw. We find them too bitter to be enjoyable.
Leaves: cooked. A bitter flavor. The dried flowers are a rennet substitute, used for curdling plant milks.
Artichokes are huge plants, so they don’t really make good companion plants for other crops, especially in small gardens. If you let some of the buds get by without harvesting, they make large, spectacular flowers that feed honey bees, bumble bees, and other pollinators.
Aphids & Blackfly
Hornets, Paper Wasps, and Yellow Jackets all prey on aphids.
Plants that attract Ladybugs: Angelica, Calendula, Caraway, Chives, Cilantro, Cosmos, Dill, Fennel,
Feverfew, Marigold, Statice, Sweet Alyssum, and Yarrow. You may also want to grow decoy crops to keep your ladybugs supplied with aphids to eat such as Early cabbage, Marigold, Nasturtium, and Radish. Without a food source, your ladybugs will be forced to leave which will leave your crops vulnerable.
Soft-winged Flower Beetle or Collops Beetle: Collops beetles are commonly found on Alfalfa and Cotton plants in agricultural fields, landscapes and gardens. The adult eats aphids and the larvae are active predators in the soil. Two abundant species in Utah are the two-spotted melyrid and the soft-winged flower beetle. Collops beetles are not commercially available.
Soldier Beetles: The adult stage of the soldier beetle eats aphids. The larvae live in the soil and help to control soil-borne pests. There are beetles that look similar to soldier beetles such as blister beetles and click beetles, so use care when identifying them. Soldier beetles are not commercially available.
Since Soldiers Beetles lay their eggs in the soil, all you have to do to is grow good nectar or pollen producing plants like Asclepias (milkweed), Solidago (goldenrod), and, while it’s not well understood, they seem particularly attracted to hydrangeas. Soldier Beetles can be found on flowers where they lie and wait for prey. They also feed on nectar and pollen but do not damage the plants.
Long-legged Flies: There are many species of long-legged flies (Dolichopodidae), the adults of which are predators of soft-bodied pests such as thrips, aphids, spider mites, flea hoppers, booklice, flies, silverfish, small caterpillars, and a variety of other small insects. They also eat nectar from flowers. The adult is recognized by the long legs and tapered abdomen but also by the metalic green or blue color. Larvae of long-legged flies are maggot-like in appearance and develop in wet or dry soil, rotting vegetation, or under bark. They are not commercially available.
Syrphid, Flower, or Hover Flies: Syrphid flies are about the size of house flies and hover in flight. The adults, which sometimes resemble bees, are not predaceous, but the larvae are aphid predators. The larvae vary in color from green to brown, some with a stripe or two down the back. The body tapers to the mouthparts. Syrphid flies are not commercially available.
Plants that attract Hover flies are: Fern-leaf yarrow (Achillea ﬁlipendulina), Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Carpet bugleweed (Ajuga reptans), Lavender globe lily (Allium tanguticum), Basket of Gold (Alyssum saxatilis), Dill (Anethum graveolens), Golden Marguerite (Anthemis tinctoria), Dwarf alpine aster (Aster alpinus), Masterwort (Astrantia major), Four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Purple poppy mallow (Callirhoe involucrata), Caraway (Carum carvi), Feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Cosmos white sensation (Cosmos bipinnatus), Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota), Buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum CA), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), Poached egg plant (Limnanthes douglasii), Statice (Limonium latifolium), Butter and eggs (Linaria vulgaris), Edging lobelia (Lobelia erinus), Sweet alyssum white (Lobularia maritima), Lemon Balm (Melissa ofﬁcinalis), Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), Spearmint (Mentha spicata), Wild Bergamot (Monarda ﬁstulosa), Rocky Mountain penstemon (Penstemon strictus), Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), Sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta ‘warrenii’), Alpine cinquefoil (Potentilla villosa), Gloriosa daisy (Rudbeckia fulgida),
Orange stonecrop (Sedum kamtschaticum), Stonecrops (Sedum spurium), Peter Pan goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), Wood betony (Stachys ofﬁcinalis), Marigold “lemon gem” (Tagetes tenuifolia),
Crimson thyme (Thymus serpylum coccineus), Spike speedwell (Veronica spicata), Zinnia "liliput" (Zinnia elegans).
Predaceous Midges: The larvae of these flies are very small (~1/10 inch long), but are generalist predators of mites, aphids and other soft-bodied insects. The larvae are yellow to orange in color. The adults are not predatory. Predaceous midges are commercially available.
Damsel Bugs: These true bugs are very common and abundant in farms, gardens and landscapes. They are generalist predators and both the adults and nymphs eat aphids, caterpillar eggs, small larvae, fleahoppers, lygus bugs, leafhoppers, treehoppers, spider mites, and other soft-bodied insects, especially on shorter growing plants. They are common in agricultural habitats, such as soybean, corn, and alfalfa. Damsel bugs are greyish brown in color and have grasping front legs. They are not commercially available.
Plants that attract Damsel Bugs are: Caraway (Carum carvi), Cosmos “white sensation” (Cosmos bipinnatus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Spearmint (Mentha spicata), Peter Pan Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), and Marigold “lemon gem” (Tagetes tenuifolia).
Big-eyed Bugs: Big-eyed bugs are small (~3/16 inch long), fast moving true bugs. They are generalist predators and are most commonly seen on the ground or in shorter growing plants. They prey on aphids, small caterpillars and caterpillar eggs, fleahoppers, lygus bugs, mites, thrips, whiteflies. They are distinguished by their very large eyes which are as broad as the width of their body. Big-eyed bugs are not available commercially.
Plants that attract Big-eyed bugs are: Caraway (Carum carvi), Cosmos “white sensation” (Cosmos bipinnatus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Spearmint (Mentha spicata), Peter Pan Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), and Marigold “lemon gem” (Tagetes tenuifolia).
Minute Pirate Bugs: Minute pirate bugs are very small (~1/12 inch long) predators that are difficult to see without a hand lens or jeweler’s loupe. They are generalist predators that feed on small insect prey. Both the nymphs and adults are predaceous. The adults are identified by the black and white color and an X pattern across the back. The nymphs are tiny and red to orange in color. Minute pirate bugs are commercially available.
Plants that attract Minute Pirate Bugs are: Caraway (Carum carvi), Cosmos “white sensation” (Cosmos bipinnatus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Spearmint (Mentha spicata), Peter Pan Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), and Marigold “lemon gem” (Tagetes tenuifolia).
Lacewings: Green lacewings are common generalist predators that feed on aphids. Brown lacewings are slightly smaller. Some species of adult lacewings are predaceous while the larvae are very active predators that feed on soft-bodied prey such as mites, aphids, leafhoppers, thrips, whiteflies, and pest eggs. Lacewings in nearly all life stages are commercially available.
Plants that attract Lacewings are: Fern-leaf yarrow (Achillea ﬁlipendulina), Dill (Anethum graveolens), Angelica (Angelica gigas), Golden marguerite (Anthemis tinctoria), Four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Purple poppy mallow (Callirhoe involucrata), Caraway (Carum carvi), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Cosmos white sensation (Cosmos bipinnatus), Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Prairie sunﬂower (Helianthus maximilianii), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), Dandelion (Taraxacum ofﬁcinale).
Parasitic Wasps: There are several species of parasitoid wasps that parasitize aphids specifically. Parasitic wasps that specialize on aphids are very small (~1/8 inch long) and female wasps have a modified stinger for depositing eggs. The egg is injected into an aphid where the larva develops inside. Parasitized aphids are a light tan to gold color and have a bulbous look. A circular cut out on the rearend of the aphid indicates adult wasp emergence. Parasitic wasps are commercially available but there are abundant populations in the environment.
Plants that attract parasitic mini-wasps are: Fern-leaf yarrow (Achillea ﬁlipendulina), Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Lavender globe lily (Allium tanguticum), Dill (Anethum graveolens),
Golden marguerite (Anthemis tinctoria), Masterwort (Astrantia major), Purple poppy mallow (Callirhoe involucrata), Caraway (Carum carvi), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Cosmos white sensation (Cosmos bipinnatus), Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare),
Statice (Limonium latifolium), Butter and eggs (Linaria vulgaris), Edging lobelia (Lobelia erinus),
Sweet alyssum – white (Lobularia maritima), Lemon balm (Melissa ofﬁcinalis), Pennyroyal (Mentha
pulegium), Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), Sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta ‘warrenii’), Alpine
cinquefoil (Potentilla villosa), Orange stonecrop (Sedum kamtschaticum), Marigold – lemon gem
(Tagetes tenuifolia), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), Crimson thyme (Thymus serpylum coccineus), and Zinnia – ‘liliput’ (Zinnia elegans).
Hornets, Paper Wasps, Yellow Jackets: Although hornets, paper wasps and yellow jackets are often considered a nuisance, they are predators of soft-bodied insects. They do not typically sting humans unless they are disturbed. If their nests are not in an area likely to be disturbed by people then it is not a bad idea to leave them alone.
Slugs & Snails
Plants that attract Earwig: Celery (Apium graveolens), Beets (Beta vulgaris, Cabbages, Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea/Brassica rapa), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Dahlia, Carrot (Daucus carota), Carnation (Dianthus), Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), Hop (Humulus lupulus), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), Apple (Malus domestica), Apricot (Prunus armeniaca), Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium), Plum (Prunus domestica), Peach (Prunus persica), European Pear (Pyrus communis), Rhubarb (Rheum hybridum), Roses (Rosa), Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Potato (Solanum tuberosum), Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), Corn (Zea mays), Zinnia
Ground Beetles: Prey on snails, slugs, ants, maggots, earthworms, caterpillars, armyworms, grubs, Colorado potato beetles, cutworms.
Plants that attract Ground Beetles: evening primrose, amaranthus, clover.
The Health Benefits of Artichoke
Vitamin C is also a well known antioxidant, and it is found in significant levels in artichokes. Vitamin C has been shown to actively discourage conditions like mucositis and fibrosis, and also to reduce the chances of breast cancer. Finally, other studies have shown that the extract from artichoke leaves can be used to induce cell apoptosis (cell death) as well as cell proliferation when injected in cancerous masses, and can reduce the chances for and effects of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia. Finally, the flavonoids found in artichokes have been found to reduce chances of breast cancer as well. Basically, eat your artichokes if you want to avoid getting cancer!
Heart Health: Aside from its impressive abilities at fighting cancer, artichokes are also considered a heart-healthy addition to your diet for a variety of reasons. Certain ingredients in the leaves of artichokes have been found to reduce the levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase the levels of good cholesterol (HDL, or omega-3 fatty acid). Cholesterol is a type of fat that builds up within the arteries of the cardiovascular system, blocks blood flow, increases blood pressure, and can lead to potential fatal heart attacks and strokes. Any method of reducing bad cholesterol is worthwhile, so give artichokes a chance at improving your heart health.
Blood Pressure: On a related note, artichokes are rich sources of potassium, the essential mineral that has an impact on numerous organ systems throughout the body. Potassium helps to neutralize the effects of excess sodium, which is notorious for increasing blood pressure. Artichokes therefore act as a vasodilator and is particularly useful for those already taking hypertension medicine to prevent the effects of potassium deficiency. Diabetics are also encouraged to eat artichokes to prevent the complications associated with blood pressure and that disease. Finally, a reduction in blood pressure can reduce the chances of heart attacks and coronary heart disease!
Liver Health: Artichokes were used as traditional liver tonics for centuries, but the exact mechanism of their impact was never full understood until modern science could properly research this versatile plant. Two antioxidants (again!) found in artichokes, cynarin and silymarin, have been shown to improve the overall health of the liver by reducing the presence of toxins and facilitating their elimination from the liver and the body. Some studies have even shown these antioxidants to actively promote regrowth and repair of damaged liver cells, which is one of the slowest organs in the body to regenerate. It seems that modern medicine finally caught up with what traditional medicine has known for generations!
Digestive Issues: Artichokes are a rich source of dietary fiber, which is one of the most beneficial nutritional staples for improving the health and functionality of your digestive system. Fiber adds bulk to the food you eat, which helps to keep your bowel movements regular and normal, and decreasing the symptoms of constipation, fiber can reduce chances of a variety of stomach and intestinal cancers, as well as bloating, cramps, excess flatulence, and general discomfort in the stomach. Furthermore, if you have problems with loose stool or diarrhea, fiber can absorb excess liquid and form healthy, predictable bowel movements in patients. Fiber also acts as a clean up crew for excess LDL cholesterol, thereby cleaning your arteries and further reducing your chances of heart disease.
Another extra benefit of artichokes in terms of digestion is its impact on the gallbladder. Artichokes soothe inflamed gallbladders and can solve the common problem of a blocked duct in the organ, thereby allowing normal function. Therefore, in a way, artichokes can be said to stimulate the production and secretion of gastric juices, as well as bile, which also aids in smooth digestion.
Hangover Cure: As mentioned earlier, artichokes can be a great salve to the liver, and can reduce any blockage, as well as reduce the levels of toxins in the blood by eliminating them quickly from the body. Therefore, artichokes make for a perfect hangover cure, and some people choose to chew on a few artichoke leaves after a night of heavy drinking!
Birth Defects: As if all of these other health benefits weren’t enough, artichokes even help pregnant women have healthy, normally-formed children. The high levels of folic acid found in artichokes can prevent neural tube defects from occurring in newborns. The neural tube closure process in vitro requires a certain amount of folate to occur properly, so folic acid is an essential part of a pregnancy diet.
Bone Health: Artichokes are one of the best foods on the market for acquiring vitamins and minerals, particularly minerals like magnesium, phosphorous, and manganese. These minerals are essential parts of increasing bone health and density, thereby reducing the chances of conditions like osteoporosis.
Metabolic Functions: Magnesium and Manganese are both essential parts of the body’s metabolic processes, and they are also found in significant amounts in artichokes. Magnesium is an important part of protein synthesis throughout the body, as well as optimizing the intake of calcium by the body, further strengthening bones. Manganese is slightly more involved than magnesium, and it impacts the metabolic rates of cholesterol, amino acids, and carbohydrates.
Brain Function: There are a number of aspects of artichokes that make them beneficial for brain health, including their quality as a vasodilator that allows more oxygen to reach the brain for elevated cognitive function, for phosphorous an essential mineral that is found in artichokes and is also packed into brain cells. Phosphorous deficiencies have been associated with a serious decline in cognitive ability, so if you want to keep your brain healthy and firing on all cylinders, eat the next artichoke you see!
Amaranth: Love Lies Bleeding (Heirloom) (Amaranthus caudatus)
Amaranth: Red Garnet (Heirloom) (Amaranthus tricolor)
Beets: Detroit Dark Red (Heirloom) (Beta vulgaris)
Bergamot: Wild (Monarda fistulosa)
Cabbage: Early Jersey Wakefield (Heirloom) (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Caraway (Carum carvi)
Carrots: Chantenay Red Cored (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Cosmic Purple (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Danvers (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Rainbow Blend (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Scarlet Nantes (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Carrots: Tendersweet (Heirloom) (Daucus carota)
Cauliflower: Snowball Y Improved (Heirloom) (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Celery: Tendercrisp (Heirloom) (Apium graveolens var. dulce)
Celery: Utah Tall 52/70 (Heirloom) (Apium graveolens var. dulce)
Chives: Garlic (Allium tuberosum)
Chives: Onion (Allium schoenoprasum var. album)
Clover: Crimson (Trifolium incarnatum)
Clover: Purple Prairie (Dalea purpurea)
Coriander: Leisure (Coriandrum sativum)
Corn: Country Gentleman-Open Pollinated (Heirloom) (Zea mays)
Corn: Golden Bantam-Open Pollinated (Heirloom) (Zea mays)
Corn, Popcorn: Shaman's Blue (Hybrid) Open Pollinated (Zea mays)
Blue corn originated in the Andes Mountains of Peru, where the native peoples usually ground it into flour for cooking. Indians of Mexico and the southwestern United States also widely used this corn, since its dryness made it an excellent flour corn and gave it good resistance to disease. This exciting blue popcorn receives high marks for both visual and taste appeal. The unique blue/purple kernel pops into mounds of snow white popcorn that will satisfy any popcorn lover with its slightly sweet flavor.
Cosmos: Bright Lights (Cosmos sulphureus)
Cosmos: Candy Stripe (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Cosmos: Radiance (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Cucumber: Marketmore 76' (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: Mexican Sour Gherkin (Heirloom) (Melothria scabra)
Cucumber: National Pickling (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: Straight Eight (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: Sumter (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber: Wisconsin SMR 58 (Heirloom) (Cucumis sativus)
Dill: Dukat (Anethum graveolens)
English Marigold (Calendula officinalis)
Fennel: Florence (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum)
Lettuce: Bibb (Heirloom)
Lettuce: Freckles Romaine (Heirloom)
Lettuce: Oakleaf (Heirloom)
Lettuce: Red Romaine (Heirloom)
Lupine: Arroyo (Lupinus succulentus)
Lupine: Russell (Lupinus polyphyllus)
George Russell, a self-taught horticulturalist from Great Britain, produced this lovely hybrid in the early 1920’s after nearly two decades of cross-breeding and experimentation. On being honored by the Royal Horticultural Society for his achievement, Mr. Russell stated that all the really crucial work had been done by the humble little bees in his garden. The name Lupine comes from the Latin “lupus,” meaning wolf. This refers to the folk belief that this plant took nutrients from the soil. Ironically, this plant actually improves the soil because of its nitrogen fixing abilities.
Lupine: Sky (Lupinus nanus)
Marigolds: Naughty Marietta (Tagetes patula)
Marigolds: Sparky Mix French (Tagetes patula)
Marigold: White (Tagetes Erecta 'Kilimanjaro')
Commonly called African marigold, Aztec marigold, American marigold or big marigold, is native to Mexico and Central America. Big marigold may be the best descriptive name because plants are noted for their large flowerheads. They typically grow from 1-4’ tall and feature huge, mostly double-globular flowers (2-4” diameter) in various shades of yellow, orange, and whitish. This variety is unaffected by high summer heat and generally blooms throughout the summer.
Mint: Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium)
Nasturtiums: Empress of India (Tropaeolum minus)
Nasturtiums: Jewel Mix (Tropaeolum minus)
Parsley: Italian Giant (Heirloom) (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum)
Pea: Alaska (Heirloom) (Pisum sativum)
Pea: Early Frosty (Heirloom) (Pisum sativum)
Penstemon: Rocky Mountain (Penstemon strictus)
Poached Egg Plant (Limnanthes douglasii)
This native species was first discovered by David Douglas, a Scottish botanist commissioned to collect native American plants suitable for the gardens of Great Britain. The species name "douglasii" honors his discovery, while the genus name "Limnanthes" means "marsh flower" because of this plant's preference for moist soil. This fragrant butterfly magnet has been awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's prestigious Award of Garden Merit.
Radish: Early Scarlet Globe (Heirloom) (Raphanus sativus)
Radish: German Giant (Heirloom) (Raphanus sativus)
Radish: Watermelon (Heirloom) (Raphanus sativus)
The Watermelon radish is a type of Japanese winter radish also known as a "daikon," which simply means "large root" in Japanese. Daikon radishes account for the largest percentage of any cultivated vegetable in Japan, and can be found in some form in nearly every meal of that country. Watermelon radishes, which orginated in north China near Beijing, are often served sweetened there as a dessert or fruit.
Radish: White Spear Sprouting (Heirloom) (Raphanus sativus)
Rhubarb: Victoria (Heirloom) (Rheum x coltorum)
Tomato: Amana Orange (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Beefsteak (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Green Zebra (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Sweetie Cherry (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Tomato: Yellow Pear (Heirloom) (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)
Yarrow: Red (Achillea millefolium rubra)
Yarrow: White (Achillea millefolium)
Zinnia: Canary Bird (Zinnia elegans)
Zinnia: Cherry Queen (Zinnia elegans)
Zinnia: Exquisite (Zinnia elegans)
A unique and colorful Zinnia that offers a range of shades. Exquisite Zinnia is an easy to grow annual that blooms bright red and fades to soft rose pink as the blooms age. Definitely a favorite of gardeners, florists, or anyone who loves cut flowers.
Zinnia: Luminosa (Zinnia elegans)
Zinnia: Oklahoma Salmon (Zinnia elegans)
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