(Lunaria annua ‘Moonwort’)
Moonwort is a biennial flower native to southern Europe that grows in open woods, sand dunes, quarries, and well-drained meadows throughout the northeastern and northwestern United States. At maturity, this plant reaches a height of 2-3' and features hairy stems, serrated heart-shaped green leaves, 1/2” 4 petaled purple flowers, and paper-thin translucent fruits the size of a silver dollar. This plant can be grown in a container, attracts bees and butterflies, tolerates drought, self-sows, and is edible and medicinal!
Also Known As: Silver Dollar Plant, Honesty, Money plant, Bolbonac
Native to: France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland.
Introduced into: Alabama, Albania, Argentina South, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, California, Central European Rus, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Ireland, Kentucky, Madeira, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sweden, Tennessee, Ukraine, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Yugoslavia.
Ease of Growing: Easy
Grown as: Biennial
Maturity (Blooms): Spring
Light: Full Sun to Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Medium
Attracts Beneficial Insects?: Yes. The flowers of this plant attract bees and butterflies.
Containers: Yes. Fits easily in almost any garden or container.
Sow Depth: 1/8"
USDA Zone: 2a-9b
Produces: hairy stems, serrated heart-shaped green leaves, 1/2” 4 petaled purple flowers, and paper-thin translucent fruits that are the size of a silver-dollar.
A pungent flavor, they are used as a mustard substitute. The pungency of mustard develops when cold water is added to the ground-up seed - an enzyme (myrosin) acts on a glycoside (sinigrin) to produce a sulphur compound. The reaction takes 10 - 15 minutes. Mixing with hot water or vinegar, or adding salt, inhibits the enzyme and produces a mild bitter mustard.
Root - raw:
Used before the plant produces flowers.
(Digitalis purpurea ‘Foxglove’)
Foxglove is a biennial/short-lived perennial flower that is native to eastern Europe but can be commonly found growing in open woods, woodland clearings, moorland and heath margins, sea-cliffs, rocky mountain slopes, and hedge banks throughout the northeastern and northwestern United States. At maturity, this plant features thick, textured leaves at the base and tall spikes of tubular, dangling 2-3” blossoms of rose pink or purple with tiny contrasting spots. This plant attracts bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds, is resistant to deer and rabbits, and is used as a cut flower!